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Tours
CITY TOUR
TERMESSOS
DEMRE MYRA KEKOVA
TURKISH NIGHT
AQUALAND
QUAD SAFARI
DIVING
BOAT TOUR
JEEP SAFARI
RAFTING
CAPPADOCIA
PAMUKKALE
FIRE OF ANATOLIA
PERGE ASPENDOS SİDE
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Private Tours
TERMESSOS EVDİRHAN DÜDEN WATERFALL
SAGALASSOS-ANTIOKEIA-EFLATUN PINAR
PERGE ASPENDOS KURŞUNLU WATERFALL
PERGE ASPENDOS SİDE MANAVGAT WATERFALL
DEMRE - MYRA - KEKOVA
KONYA KAPADOKYA (2 DAY H/B)
PAMUKKALE EFES APHRODİAS (2 DAY H/B)
ALANYA
SAGALASSOS
PHASELİS OLYMPOS ÇIRALI (CHİMERA)
PAMUKKALE
CITY TOUR
KARPUZKALDIRAN DÜDEN KURŞUNLU
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Hotels
 
 
 
PAMUKKALE
From : ANTALYA
at : 06:15 KUNDU
return : 22:00 HOTEL
Price : 55 €

- Departure from hotel

- Arriving in Pamukkale by the route

  Korkuteli, Çavdır, Acıpayam

- Lunch

- Hieropolis Ancient Site, The Travertine

  Basins

- Taking pictures and swimming pause

- Shopping break

- Back to Antalya and transfer to the hotel. 

 

PAMUKKALE (HIERAPOLİS)

Located 20 kilometers from the town of Denizli in the Aegean region of Turkey, Pamukkale is one of the most interesting places in the world, justly famous not only for the entrancing beauty of its unique geological formations but also for its historical remains. The calcium oxide-rich waters flowing down the southern slope of Caldag located north of the ruins have, over the millennia, built up deposits of white travertine on the plateau thus fully justifying both the site's ancient name of Hierapolis (Holy City) and its modern one of Pamukkale (Cotton Castle).

Ancient Hierapolis appears to have been founded by King Eumenes II of Pergamon and its name is derived from Hiera, the wife of King Telephos, the legendary founder of Pergamon. The city became subject to Rome in 133 BC. In 17 BC. during the reign of Tiberius it suffered a heavy earthquake that substantially destroyed the city, requiring it to be rebuilt. Preliminary excavations at Hierapolis were undertaken by a German team towards the end of the last century. Since 1957, excavation and restoration work has been going on under the direction of an Italian group of archaeologists from the University of Lecce sponsored by Fiat.

The ancient city was strung out on either side of a long colonnaded street called the Plateia. Measuring 13 meters in width, this street ran north and south from the southern gateway to the Arch of Domitian in the north. It is paved with huge blocks of limestone. The first structure one encounters on reaching the plateau is the city baths, which are in a very good state of preservation. The baths are Roman and from the 2nd century AD. In the eastern part of the baths is a palaestra measuring 36.13 by 52.25 meters. Immediately to the north and south of the palaestra are two big rooms that were reserved for the emperor and ceremonial use. A large hall stretches the length of the western side of the palaestra and this was the gymnasium used by athletes. This salon led into the frigidarium from which one proceeded to the barrel-vaulted rooms of the caldarium. A small room adjacent to the large hall now serves as a museum in which works discovered in the Hierapolis excavations are on display. Since Hierapolis was principally a luxury resort town it was richly adorned with magnificent sculptures showing the influence of the Aphrodisias school and is well worth a visit.

The well preserved theater of Hierapolis commands magnificent view of the plain below. The original theater was located above the northern gate, but when the city was rebuilt during the reign of the Flavian emperors (60 AD.) the theater was relocated here, and the seats from the old structure were used in the work.  During the reign of Septimius Severus (193-211 AD.) the theater's skenea was modified and richly decorated with relief. In 532 it was discovered that the skenea had been weakened by age and the almost daily seismic

activity that takes place here and had to be reinforced. Since the theater has been restored, it is now possible to see the friezes of mythological scenes depicting Apollo and Artemis in their original positions. Thirty rows of the seats of this theater resting against the slope have survived. Originally there were 20 rows in the lower part and 25 in the upper separated by a diazoma. The cavea was divided by eight aisles. Passing through the city walls above the theater you can see the Martyrion of St Philip. This is an octagonal building erected on a square measuring 20 by 20 meters. It was built in the early 5th century. Even in its present state of ruin it is an impressive structure.

Near the road, below the theater, is the Temple of Apollo, the principal deity of the city. While the foundations of this temple go back to late Hellenistic times, the present remains of the upper structure are from the 3rd century AD. Next to it there is a cave (called the Plutonion) from which poisonous gases emerge. (According to Strabo, an ox thrust into this cave would keel over and die. He himself experimented with doves.) The temple measures 20 by 15 meters and sit on a platform high 2.5 meters. Before the temple there is a monumental fountain. Built during the late 3rd century AD., the walls of this rectangular fountain are very well preserved. There was also a pool located before the fountain and the structure was richly adorned with statues and columns. The water for this fountain was brought here by aqueducts, remains of which may be seen in the vicinity of Güzelpinar and between Pamukkale and Karahayit.

East of the present museum is a Christian basilica consisting of a nave and two aisles. It dates from the 6th century AD. Walking along the route of the Plateia (which now passes through the modern swimming pool) reminds us that this main street dividing the ancient city was once decorated with colonnades, porticos, and important buildings located on either side. The street runs directly toward the city walls passing through a gateway built in Byzantine times atop an earlier fountain. On the way is a basilical structure with two aisles and a nave whose eastern end terminates in an apse. The city walls were built in 396 AD. and were reinforced by 28 towers. Passing through Byzantine gate you come to a rather well preserved section of the Plateia. This part was built during the reign of Domitian (81-96 AD.) and terminates with the Arch of Domitian. This monumental gateway was actually erected by Julius Frontinus, who was proconsul of the Roman province of Asia (middle western Anatolia) in 82 and 83 AD., and dedicated to the emperor. The gate has two round towers and three portals. Excavations are now in progress to reveal the remains of shops and houses that once lined both sides of this street.

Northeast of the street between the Byzantine and Domitian gates was the agora (market) of  ancient Hierapolis. The traces of the city's original theater may be seen above. If you follow the road in the direction of the necropolis you pass by the imposing walls of a building originally erected as baths around the end of the 2nd century AD. It was converted to a church in the 5th century. The huge necropolis of Hierapolis, largest ancient graveyard in Anatolia with more than 1200 tombs, spreads out on either side of the road for a distance of two kilometers. It contains tumuli, sarcophagi, and house-shaped tombs that range in date from the late Hellenistic period to early Christian times. It is one of the most extensive and best preserved ancient cemeteries in Anatolia. The road proceeds on to the hot springs of Karahayit located 4 kilometers away.

 

TRAVERTINES

The term travertine comes from Roman times, in reference to the great travertine sediments of Tivoli in Italy. The travertines are stone kind which result from complicated chemical reactions that have many causes, many facets and they are largely dependent upon the surroundings. The geological phenomena which compose Pamukkale Thermal Springs, affect a wide area. In this area, there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature change between 35 and 100 degrees. The thermal springs of Pamukkale form an integral part of the regions which are potential for tourism and have been popular since ancient times. The water, that emerges from the spring, is transported 320 m to the head of the travertines and deposits itself on a section 60 to 70 meters long covering an expanse of 240 to 300 meters. In little pools side and larger basins, the calcium carbonate which is deposited at first is a soft jelly but with time it hardens and becomes a travertine.

With the reason the thermal water's effort to deposit on the normal way, travertine emerges. When the calcium carbonade reaches to an excessive amount and the water comes to the land, the carbondioxide transpirers and the calcium carbonate deposits. The depositing goes on while the carbon dioxide in the water and the carbon dioxide in the weather balances.

This reaction is affected by the weather conditions, ambient temperature and the speed of flow duration. Precipitation continues until the carbon dioxide in the thermal water reaches equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Measurements made at the source of the springs find atmospheric levels of 725 mg/l carbon dioxide, by the time this water flows across the travertines, this figure falls to 145 mg/l. Likewise calcium carbonate falls from 1200 mg/l to 400 mg/l and calcium 576.8 mg/l to 376.6 mg/l. From these results it is calculated that 499.9 mg of CaCO3 is deposited on the travertine for every liter of water. This means that for a flow rate of 1 ı/s of water 43191 grams are deposited daily. The average density of a travertine is 1.48 g/cm3 implying a deposit of 29.2 dm3. Given that the average flow of the water is 465.2 l/s this implies that it can whiten 13584 m2 a day, but in practice this areal coverage is difficult to attain. These theoretical calculations indicate that up to. 4.9 km2 it can be covered with a white deposit of 1 mm thickness.